However, many hydrophytes have well developed root systems. For example, Eichhornia and Pistia have well developed adventitious roots. In these. A level OCR Biology on plant adaptations to water availability. Examines the adaptations made by hydrophytes and their importance.

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Adaptations of Water-plants Hydrophytes. Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living within aquatic environments. They are also referred to as hydrophytes or aquatic macrophytes. This is the registered address, please do not use for communication. Shopping Cart 0 item s – Rs. Welcome visitor you can login or create an account. Adaptation of Hydrophytes Hydrophytes – The plants which grow in water either partially adaptztions completely are known as aquatic plants or hydrophytes.

They may be fresh water or hydrophyfes water plants. Plants which grow in water systems like in ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, pools, etc are known as fresh water plants. The plants which grow in salt water are known as salt water plants or marine plants. Here the adaptations of hydrophytes are discussed under three headings: Aquatic plants show various kinds of modification in the morphology adzptations roots, stem and leaves to adapt to their aquatic life.

In hydrophytes roots of the plants are not much important as the plants are partially or completely immersed in water.

Morphological and Physiological Adaptations of Hydrophytes

In plants like Utricularia, Slavinia roots are absent. In submerged plants like Vallisnersia roots are poorly developed. In floating plants like Pistia, in place of root caps, root pockets are found.

Root hairs are poorly developed in hydrophytes. Stems are spongy, flexible, slender and long in submerged hydrophytes like Ilydrilla. In floating plants like Pistis, Azolla the bydrophytes are horizontal, spongy and floating. In hydrophytes which bear roots as in Aadptations, Potamogeton the stem is a rhizome or stolon. Some hydrophytic plants show special modifications in their petioles.

Petioles of submerged plants, with free floating leaes are long, spongy and slender. Nympha ea and Nelumbium. In free floating plants like hydrophyte the petiole is swollen and helps in floating.


Leaves of hydrophytes show a number of variations in the structure of their leaf lamina. In submerged hydrophytes like Utricularia the leaves are finely dissected and in plants like Vallisneria the leaves are long and narrow. In both, the adaptation is to offer little resistance to water current. The leaves daaptations free floating hydrophytes are smooth and shining and coated with wax. The wax prevents water from clogging and also protects the leaf from physical and chemical injuries.

Anatomical Adaptations in Hydrophytes. Hydrophytes show the following adaptations in the anatomical features:. Reduction in protecting structures: The submerged portions hydrrophytes the plants lack daaptations. The epidermis is used as an absorbing or photosynthesizing organs rather than a protecting organ. The hypodermis is poorly developed. Reduction of mechanical tissue: In hudrophytes submerged portions of the plants the sclerenchyma is totally absent or poorly developed.

In some hydrophytes special type of sclereids called asterosclereids provide mechanical support in the absence of sclerenchyma. Sclerenchyma is present in little or moderate quantities in the aerial portions of the plant. Reduction of vascular tissue: The vascular bundles in the plants are reduced to few or even to one and are located at the center.

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Xylem cells are very few. Phloem tissues are not well developed, there are a few hydrophytex. In the submerged parts of the plants the stomata are totally absent or vestigial. They are present only on the upper surface of the leaves of rooted and floating hydrophytes. In most of the hydrophytes plant the roots, stems and leaves have air chambers and they have CO2 and O2 gases that help them in respirations and photosynthesis.

The air chambers also help in buoyancy and provide mechanical support. Plantesamfund – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Adaptations of Water-plants Hydrophytes. Aquatic plant – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living within aquatic environments.

This is a topic of botany. Anyone who has knowledge on the topic “aquatic adaptations of hydrophytic plants”, please share it with me.

Ecological Adaptations of Hydrophytes (PPT) | easybiologyclass

I have to submit the project at the very 1st of january So please hurry up! Here are some adaptations of aquatic plants: All aquatic plants however, flower out of the water. However the earliest ancestor of hydrophytes, the waterlily, is found to have characteristics of both monocots and dicots, which implies that the waterlily appeared early in the evolution of angiosperms.


It is possible that hydrophytes developed concurrently with land plants.

The roots in these plants are mainly for anchorage. There is some complicated chemistry involved with the carbon dioxide, pH, and carbonate hardness of the water that affects the environment these plants are in.

Some plants, such as Elodea waterweedhave adapted to low levels of carbon dioxide by decalcifying the water. The process is called biogenic decalcification and it’s basically extracting CO2 from the carbonates in the water which effectively drives the pH up. Well that’s all I got for now.

Storage of water succulent leaves eg. Water uptake deep root system eg. An example of a mesophytic habitat would be a rural temperate meadow, which might contain Goldenrod, Clover, Oxeye Daisy, and Rosa multiflora. Mesophytes generally adaptatiins a more or less continuous water supply, and have only basic features for water conservation, such as a cuticle and stomata.

They usually have larger, thinner leaves compared to xerophytes, sometimes with a greater number of stomata on the undersides of leaves. Because of their lack of particular xeromorphic adaptations, when they are exposed to extreme conditions they lose water rapidly, and are not tolerant of adaptatiins. Cuticles primarily prevent water loss, thus most hydrophytes have no need for cuticles.

Hydrophytes ( Read ) | Biology | CK Foundation

Stomata that are open most of time: This means that guard cells on the stomata are generally inactive. An increased number of stomata, that can be on either side of leaves.

A less rigid structure: Air sacs for flotation. Specialized roots able to take in oxygen. Characteristics of aquatic plants: Excerpted entirely from link below: Cuticles primarily discourage water loss; thus most hydrophytes have no need for adaptationss.